Health // Medicines

Vitamins and their role in the human body

increased intake of vitamins shown to those people whose diet is inadequate, children and young people in their teens, the sick and people in long-term rehabilitation, pregnant women and nursing mothers.In these cases, a lack of vitamins must be filled with the appropriate vitamin supplements.This information usually end our knowledge.Very few people actually know what vitamins are, why they are necessary, what is their impact.But it is not unimportant to know each of us.

What are vitamins?

Vitamins are organic compounds that the body can not produce itself, so they must be taken with food.They are not a homogenous group and have a different chemical composition.Some of these acids, such as vitamin C, which is just the ascorbic acid or a derivative thereof.Others - salts such as vitamin B15, which is the calcium salt of gluconic acid.Vitamin A belongs to the group of alcohols with high molecular weight is sensitive to heat and oxygen.

Some vitamins are homogeneous chemical compounds, while others,

such as vitamin C, D or B, include a lot of chemicals.Dietary vitamins C and D are a group of about 16 steroid compounds chemically similar.This group includes ergosterol (provitamin D 2), which is mainly from plant tissues, 7-dehydrocholesterol (pro-vitamin D 3) contained in the fish.Both pro-vitamin in the body of the animal turns into vitamin D 2 and D 3. It should be noted that the whole complex of B vitamins is one name, not because they are chemically similar, but because they work together.Individual substances in these vitamins have their own names of different chemicals.For example, vitamin B 1 is thiamine, which works in the body, as thiamine pyrophosphate.Vitamin B 2 is called riboflavin, vitamin B6 is pyridoxine, which operates in the body in the form of pyridoxal phosphate.Vitamin B 12 is defined as cyanocobalamin or cobalamin, which means that one of the components is cobalt.

Action vitamins

common feature is the low molecular weight of all the vitamins - their role in the human body is the organization of all major processes.Although we need them in small amounts, but they nevertheless play an important role in metabolism.Therefore, one should not underestimate the complexity and close coordination of chemical reactions in the body.

Metabolism - the process of conversion of food, consisting of carbohydrates, protein, fat, water, salts and vitamins.The food is crushed and then absorbed in the organic changes, and then converted into the building blocks for creation of new molecules, or used as an energy source.Vitamins are not sources of energy or building material for cells.But they are essential to the metabolism can flow normally.They should remain as a "detonator" which activates the motor is extremely complex machine, which is the body.It vitamins allow biochemical reactions.Their action is similar to the action of water, which because of its very loose and tenuous structure can penetrate all organs and tissues.Without water, life is impossible.Without vitamins, as it turns out, too.

Why are they needed?

body resembles a huge chemical plant, in which the production of energy and building materials (eg, protein).Vitamins are present in all living organisms and are necessary for carrying out chemical reactions essential for life.They act as catalysts, i.e.speed up chemical reactions, are not taking a direct part in them.For example, control the distribution of food into simple soluble substances (digestive enzymes), or provide a further transformation of these simple substances into energy.The role of vitamins reminiscent of the work of managers who do not work, but their presence means that employees work faster and more efficiently.

Vitamins are extremely active assistants in the human body.They act as so-called "co-enzyme" t. E. Form the enzymes.Vitamin as coenzyme is a "subject" small but very energetic and therefore, due to its action in the body all the processes are faster and more efficiently.For example, starch is easily digestible because of special enzymes, and maltose.When this process takes place without the enzyme, we have to face many difficulties.Thus, the role of enzymes and vitamins as coenzymes very important.Moreover, they not only accelerate the process, but also to "make a decision" about the type of source material for a specific chemical reaction.

Enzymes and their assistants, vitamins play an important role in millions of reactions in the body.Because of them begins complicated processing food, followed by the slow processing into simpler substances for absorption by the body.Even during chewing or grinding it up into smaller particles in the oral cavity are enzymes called amylases which convert carbohydrates into sugar and protein is cleaved at amino acids.
There are various activities that help them, such as some vitamins act as coenzymes.Vitamin B 1 and B 2 is activated along with the appropriate enzymes, controlling the energy decay carbohydrates and proteins.In addition, together with vitamin B 1 released from the nerve cell as acetylcholine - a substance that regulates memory.Not surprisingly, the lack of this vitamin leads to loss of memory and concentration.Vitamin B 6 fully supports the production of any protein substances, including hormones.Consequently, long-term deficiency of this vitamin is the cause of menstrual disorders (due to hormonal deficiency).This vitamin is also involved in the formation of hemoglobin (which carries oxygen to the tissue as a component of red blood cells), so that it is no cause of anemia.Vitamin B 6 is involved in the production of the compounds responsible for the functioning of the nervous system (e.g., serotonin) as well as for construction of myelin (the protective covering of nerve cells).His absence could lead to many diseases of the nervous system and to a deterioration in mental abilities.Vitamin B 6 is also required in the formation of new cells and the functioning of the genetic code, by which is the development of an organism and its regeneration.If vitamin A deficiency, these reactions do not work properly.Defects occur in the formation of blood cells in a human too few red blood cells, which in turn, makes it susceptible to disease and infection.

Equally important is vitamin D, the effect of which consists of several stages.Skin exposed to ultraviolet rays transforms provitamin D 2 and D 3 vitamin D2 and D 3.Further processes occur in the liver, where vitamins are converted into the hormone through which blood enters the tissues of the small intestine and bone.It stimulates the intestinal epithelium to transport calcium across the intestinal mucosa, such that it accelerates the formation of protein and calcium transport, which increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.Therefore, deficiency of vitamin D leads to disruption of calcium absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract and, consequently, to bone deformation.This is especially dangerous for children, who need calcium to build bones.Then there is a risk of serious distortions of the bone, such as rickets, curvature of the knee and even slower growth.

Vitamin C is involved in the production and conservation of the protein collagen, which is the most frequent tissue in the body.It combines all of the cells, regardless of their form, and protects cells from infection.Lack of vitamin C is the cause of lack of collagen, which makes the fabric brittle, prone to damage, which are easy to break and cause bleeding.With a significant deficiency may develop rot tissues (scurvy), after which there is a general weakness of the body, and thus, reduced resistance to disease.

juices, pills or injections?

In fact, the appropriate amount of vitamins should come to us with food.However, when they are absent in the body, we can also take the form of a ready-vitamin complexes in the form of bulk powder, tablets, capsules, and gels, lotions, inhalations, injections and implants.All these measures are aimed at fast delivery of special components of vitamins in the body.

Sometimes you can decide to take a multivitamin, consisting of a mixture of different vitamins.It happens that only one vitamin preparation will have some effect.Thus, in the spring, when we are weak, we are increasing the dose of vitamin C. When we experience muscle pain, doctors sometimes prescribe injections of vitamins of the B group are also very popular so-called "vitamin cocktails".But do not forget that the best - a natural source of vitamins.It is only necessary to know what and how to eat a particular food.For example, we know that a lot of carotene in carrots.But few know that it is in its raw form is practically not absorbed.It is only useful in combination with fat, i.e., such as a vegetable oil.

How to take?

You should be aware that all vitamins are divided into two categories: fat-soluble (which include vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamin C and vitamin B, namely B 1, B 2, B 6,B 12, and niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin).The first type of vitamins found in fats and fatty foods.It is also important to provide the conditions that the body can absorb them.This group may also include beta-carotene, or pro-vitamin A, which is located in fruits and vegetables.If we want it to have benefited the vitamins you need to take them with food containing fats.This will facilitate the absorption of this vitamin.For this reason, vitamin tablets should be swallowed during or after a meal.

Water-soluble vitamins can be found in the watery part of the food.For the assimilation of fat is not necessary.They need to be careful - do not cook them too long to be used as food.Fresh foods, such as vegetables and fruits lose much of vitamins when cooking.It is important to store them at a low temperature to avoid loss of vitamins.

Did you know ...

Plants also need vitamins.They also can synthesize them from the outside, that is, to produce their own purposes.Plant organisms unlike humans and animals are able to produce their own nutrients simply taken from the minerals and water.

turns out that vitamins are produced by living beings, depending on the species.For example, humans, monkeys, and guinea pigs can not synthesize ascorbic acid.Therefore, vitamin C, they should receive from the outside.However, rats in which the substance is also necessary to be able to synthesize its own.

In addition to the vitamins required for human and vertebrates, there are also various vitamins for insect species (e.g., porphyrins, sterols) and microorganisms (glutathione, lipoic acid).

source of vitamins for animals can be not only plants and bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract.Carnivores, eating the contents of the intestines of their victims, accumulate certain vitamins.

Vitamin D is necessary for a person only when skin is exposed to sunlight.Conversely, if he is getting enough ultraviolet rays, do not need extra vitamin D supplement the diet.

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