One way to reduce the number of abortions - there is widespread use of contraception.
contraceptive methods performed Incorporation many factors - nekontratsepivnyh properties that can be used to improve women's health and the prevention of a number of gynecological diseases, the reliability of the method, its safety, as well as individual attitudes to female contraceptives.The effectiveness of any contraceptive expressed Pearl Index, which is determined by the number of pregnancies in 100 women who used this method for years.
Among contraceptive methods are distinguished:
hormonal method of contraception.
this purpose use such means:
- combined (estrogen-progestin) oral contraceptives;
- progestin oral contraceptives (mile-drinking);
- long-acting injectable contraceptives;
- implant contraceptives.
There single component , which contain only one progestin and combined oral contraceptives.
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) - a very effective means, which contain estrogen and progestogen component.
COCs inhibit the production of hormones that promote ovulation.The changes in the endometrium during the COCs, do not provide the fertilized egg to implant.And COCs may reduce blood loss during menstruation, reduce the duration of the menstruation, pain, reduce the risk of certain inflammatory diseases.
The disadvantages include conditions that are sometimes associated with COC.In this small pervuyuochered nausea, headache, dizziness, worsening of mood.
method has advantages : high efficiency, ease of use, recycling, positive effect on fertility and generally on the female body (improves skin, hair).Women who regularly and for a long time (at least 2 years) taking COCs significantly reduced the incidence of cancer of the reproductive system, the development of mastitis and postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Contraindications COCs have a pregnancy, vascular disease now or in history (hypertension, thrombophlebitis, IHS, strokes).You can not take smoking women after the age of 35 years, with liver disease are accompanied by violation of its function, hormone-dependent tumors, the presence of bleeding of uncertain etiology of obesity.
progestogens oral contraceptives .
They contain only progestin.Progestogens effective contraceptives in women older.They are often prescribed for painful and heavy menstruation, mastalgia, premenstrual syndrome.One of the most important points is that progestin prnparaty can be taken during lactation.
Prolonged injectable contraceptives.
Distinguish combined estrogen-progestogen injectable contraceptives, and one component in the composition, which include long-acting progestogens.In this group, the most common drugs have Depo-Provera.
recently used progestin implant preparations .these drugs in the form of capsules implanted under the skin.This provides a contraceptive effect for five years.
intrauterine contraception (IUDs).
to use intrauterine contraception uterine "spiral".They reduce the viability of the sperm, enhance spermicidal properties endometrial shortens egg viability, promotes antistalsis fallopian tubes.
If fertilization took place, prevent the onset of pregnancy: change of peristaltic tubing and the contractile function of the uterus, changes in metabolic processes in the endometrium.
hormonal intrauterine devices (Mirena) also secrete the hormone and causes gormonoobuslovlennye contraceptive effects.
Contraindications to IUD: Do not use during pregnancy, cancer of the uterus or cervix, uterine bleeding, infection of the genital tract.If you have an ectopic pregnancy anemneze, the use of the IUD is possible only if other contraceptives are contraindicated.
Barrier methods of contraception.
These include: male condoms, vaginal diaphragms, cervical caps and spermicides.
Barrier methods konratseptsii perform mechanical obstacles to getting sperm into the vagina (condom) and cervix (the cap, diaphragm), inactivate sperm (spermicide).Spermicides sschestvuyut in various forms - cream, jelly, foam tablets, sponges.
positive properties of some barrier methods of contraception is that they tend to some extent prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.Condoms are made of latex and are highly effective against HIV and hepatitis B and C.
Surgical Contraception is widely used in many countries.The effectiveness of this type of contraception reaches 100%, although the described cases of pregnancy and after sterilization.Female sterilization is performed by tubal occlusion in laparoscopic surgery, and men - by banding vas deferens.The disadvantage of this method is its non-negotiable.
postcoital contraception used when sexual intercourse, unprotected by other methods, has already taken place.Use COC - 2-4 tablets, not later 72 hours after sexual intercourse twice within 12 hours.
Dinazol, postinor consumed in the first 72 hours twice in 12 hours.
There is temperature method of contraception .It is based on abstinence from sexual intercourse for 3 days before and 3-4 days after ovulation.To determine the day of ovulation test are basal body temperature and the table.Special programs can be downloaded from the Internet and enter figures only basal temperature every day.The program will determine the day of ovulation.